Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood. It classified into four main groups based on cell type and rate of growth: acute lymphocytic (ALL), acute myeloid (AML), chronic myeloid (CML), and chronic lymphocytic (CLL). CLL includes with leukemia in this report in order to describe temporal trends, but it is now classified as a type of lymphoma. Although leukemia often thought of as a childhood cancer, the majority (92%) of cases diagnosed in adults 20 years of age and older. Among adults, the most common types are CLL (37%) and AML (32%), while in those 0 to 19 years. ALL is most common, accounting for 74% of cases.
From 2005 to 2014, the overall leukemia incidence rate increased by 1.6% per year, ranging from 0.5% per year for CLL to 3.9% per year for AML, which rose from 3.6 (per 100,000) in 2005 to 4.8 in 2014. According to American Cancer society an estimated 24,370 leukemia deaths occured in 2018 in USA only. American Cancer society has estimated new cases with Leukemia will be 61,780 in 2019 and estimated deaths is 22,840.
Commonly used treatment to cure Leukemia such as Chemotherapy has many fatal side effects like Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS), which is a morbid condition results due to rapid destruction of cancer cell mass. Researchers from IIT, Kharagpur (IIT-KGP),India has came up with new technology LeuCollect®. The technology has been developed using nanoparticles and translational research by interdisciplinary team. LeuCollect® works similar to dialysis system. It removes cancer cells from leukemia blood without affecting normal physiology of the blood unlike conventional leukapheresis system.
Leukemia blood mixed with anticoagulant and nanoparticles passed through LeuCollect® system. Then it pumped into buffer reservoir and goes to separation channel. In the process,leukemia blood mixed with anticoagulant and nanoparticles passes through the filtration channels. Nanoparticles binds with cancer cells in the process and become ferromagnetic due to magnetic property of the nanoparticles and when they passed through the strong magnetic in the separation module, it separates from the blood. After filtration processed clean blood sent to the body and cancer cells binded with nanoparticle collected separately into buffer reservoir. Buffer reservoir separates nanoparticles and cancer cells. The cancer cells are sent to the collector and nanoparticles are processed again for reuse.
LeuCollect® reduces chances of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS). The technology LeuCollect® is under further development and commercialization by alacris research and development private limited.